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What is Bunion?

About Bunion

Bunions, or hallux valgus, are one of the most common deformities of the forefoot. A bunion is a bump caused by enlarged bone and tissue at the outer base of the big toe where the joint angles inward toward the other toes. A displacement of the first metatarsal bone toward the midline (center) of the body and a simultaneous displacement of the big toe away from the midline (and toward the smaller toes) cause this bump to appear.


Over time, the big toe can come to rest under, or occasionally over, the second toe. The bony bump is a form of arthritis.

The deformity gives you a wide foot and causes a weakening and sagging of the arch.The motion of the joint and shoe pressure can cause pain. There may be corns on the adjacent sides of the first and second toes. A callus may develop over the bunion, and bursitis can form between the skin and the bunion bone.

A similar bump at the outer base of the fifth (small) toe is called a bunionette. These are formed when the little toe moves inward toward the big toe. Bunionettes are sometimes called tailor's bunions.

Bunions are caused by various factors. An abnormal pronated fooot that rolls inward is one of the most common causes. Other causes include a family history of bunions, wearing shoes that are too narrow-toed, and limb length discrepancy. Individuals with flat feet are more prone to bunions, calluses, and hammertoes.

Bunion Deformity Stage

Judge How Severe Your Bunion Is

1. Reversible Stage

(Mild Bunion)

2. Contraction Stage

(Moderate Bunion)

3. Deterioration


(Moderate Bunion)

4. Deformity Stage

(Severe Bunion)

To judge how severe a bunion is, clinicians

take an X-ray and measure angles between

certain bones in the foot (HVA and IMA) .

The upper limit of normal for the HVA is 15

degrees, for the IMA, 9 degrees.

In the first stage, Hallux Vulgus Angle is around 10 degrees,

affecting the appearance, without pain but with slight callus

on the sole.


It doesn't dirrectly affect walking. However, if you keep on wearing high heels shoes, you will feel painful later.


When Hallux Valgus Angle is between 10-20 degrees, the joints and

second toes are obviously squeezed.

The soles of the feet are obviously widened, with the obvious callus.


Long-time walking may cause pain in the big toe joints and in the

soles of the feet. 

When Hallux Valgus Angle is between 20-40 degrees, and the toes start to overlap. The anterior transverse arch collapses, the corns form, and the callus gets worseon.

During this stage, feet are becoming flat, and the heels are painful. The force on both feet start to be difficult to balance, which seriously affect standing and walking.

When HVA>40 degrees, the toes lose function. Big toe is severely

overlapped, causing difficulty in walking. The sole of the feet directly

bears the pressure from the toes, becoming rough and calloused.

The feet are bearing force wrongly, then joints will coordinate

difficultly, causing the force line of the entire body to change,

the knee joints inflamed, back pain and so on. 

Treating Bunions


Conservative Treatment

Shoes or boots that are tapered in the toe area can cause bunions to worsen. Check the foot care section of your local drugstore for a current selection of bunion relief products. If there is an inflammation of the bunion, take an anti-inflammatory medication, elevate the foot, and apply ice three times a day, 15 minutes are a time. For information on cold and heat therapy techniques.

A full-service shoe shop or a pedorthist should be able to modify a boot to soften a pressure point or stretch a portion of the leather. This may relieve pressure on bunions, corns, and calluses.

Two simple big toe stretches can help relieve big toe discomfort associated with bunions.
1. Sit with your foot flat on the floor and then with the heel flat, raise the foot. Gently pull your big toe outward to the side and hold for several seconds. Repeat ten times.
2. While in the same position, raise your foot on its heel, curling your toes tightly downward. Gently push down on your toes. Repeat ten times.


When conservative measures don't provide relief, surgery may be necessary in extreme cases. A bunion ectomy removes the bony prominence. In serve cases, an osteotomy procedure realigns the toe joint . In these surgeries, screws, plates, or wires hold the bones in position while they heal. 

Bunion Products

Do You Know?

CARETRAS BUNION CORRECTOR RELIEF KIT Providing protection and support, the bunion splint uses an integrated aluminum brace to supply constant, gentle pressure on the big toe to realign it and slow the progression or formation of bunions. The bunion splint is able to relieve discomfort and pain caused by bunions, Hallux Valgus and crooked toes. Also reduces pressure and inflammation for complete bunion pain relief.

CARETRAS FAST BUNION RELIEF SLEEVES WITH GEL, SILICONE TOE SEPARATOR WITH GUARD AND STANDARD TOE SPACERS (Deluxe Kit) help with discomfort, pressure, and inflammation caused by bunions. Cushions on the sleeves protect skin while walking and exercising. Gel pad and bunion guard act as a buffer to shield the sensitive bunion area to prevent painful rubbing from occurring. They can be worn discreetly under shoes, socks, and stockings for undetectable protection. Suitable For all kinds all shoes like flats, sandals, heels and sneakers.

CARETRAS PATCHES are low-frictio patches uniquely applied to areas of footwear and insoles - not skin - for easier, long-lasting bunion protection. Several sizes are available: small ovals for toes or large ovals for the ball of foot.

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